— Why They Are Something Special
Schaffhausen is an island in Switzerland’s watchmaking industry, because the vast majority of the country’s manufacturers are based in the French-speaking part of the country. From the very beginning, this unusual geographical location has fostered IWC’s philosophy, which is based on a passion for watchmaking, untiring enterprise and perfect craftsmanship. As an international premium brand name, the company has consciously chosen to specialise in innovative mechanical watches. The individual who purchases an IWC watch expects not only precision, functional design and a long service life but also the kind of advanced technical features that only a few watch manufacturers worldwide are able to provide. The reputation of the brand from Schaffhausen is founded not least on the fact that its highly qualified employees master every step of the production processes behind complications like the minute repeater, the power reserve, the tourbillon and the perpetual calendar. Behind the claim to excellence, “Probus Scafusia”, which was first formulated in 1903 and stands for good, solid craftsmanship from Schaffhausen, lies the desire to manufacture precision timepieces that will be a joy to use and will retain their value well into the future.
IWC’s Philosophy is based on a passion for watchmaking, untiring enterprise and perfect craftsmanship
For the designers and construction specialists at IWC, this is not only an enormous challenge but also the force that drives them on to greater things. Every IWC watch is professionally finished by masters of their trade. For they are the individuals whose trained eyes, nimble fingers and precision instruments put together IWC watches from a collection of single parts: each a fascinating example of meticulous workmanship, functionality and design, each an outstanding piece of engineering excellence at its very best.
Whenever IWC starts developing a new model, one question needs to be asked. What, exactly, do the designers and construction specialists wish to achieve? Should the watch set new standards in complexity? Will its main strength be the power reserve, or perhaps its water-resistance? In an initial step, the first components are “modelled” using computeraided design. Here, IWC attaches enormous importance to integrating the work of construction and design with modern production technology. Working closely with the construction engineers, the watch designers play a crucial role in determining how best to harmonise form and function. The dial and the strap or bracelet, the positioning of the displays, the choice of materials and colours or the surface finish are always the logical outcome of constructive teamwork. Apart from the technological achievement and an attractive design, other, more emotional, aspects – such as the way the watch actually feels in the hand – also play an important role. Thus, the feel of the edge of the case, the way a push-button is activated or the sound of the crown as it engages are not left to chance. Often, the construction engineers and designers will take their inspiration from old drawings. Ultimately, it is respect for the watchmaking pioneers of the past that guarantees continuity at the Schaffhausenbased company.
It is respect for the watchmaking pioneers of the past that guarantees continuity
Thanks to a sophisticated development and quality management system backed by an exacting inspection and testing programme, IWC is able to guarantee quality of the highest order. The advanced scientific methods used include three-dimensional computer simulations, X-ray-based materials analyses or tests designed to show how the watches behave under extreme practical, everyday conditions. The use of high-speed cameras and laser measuring instruments make even the tiniest movements visible, and sophisticated computer programs calculate exactly what stresses a part will tolerate.
Details such as seals, push-buttons, wheels, levers, shafts, tooth profiles or the dimensions of springs are examined for possible sources of error from the earliest phases of development. IWC calls this process “error source analysis”. At the same time, the developers make the design reliable and service-friendly, while ensuring that an IWC watch will continue to run and can be repaired for many, many years.
This term is used to describe a programme of around thirty gruelling tests lasting several months which are designed for new watches at the prototype phase or later as part of the approval process for the pilot series. These tests simulate in condensed form just about everything that can happen to a watch, under normal and extreme circumstances, during the course of its long life. Only when several prototypes have passed stringent testing and a pilot run has revealed no more problems is the company ready to go into series manufacture, there by adding another fascinating chapter to the legend that is IWC.
During impact testing, the watch is exposed to various rates of acceleration. Normal acceleration, due to gravity, is 1 g = 9.81 m/s². If a force of 100 g is ex- erted on a watch with a case weighing 100 grammes, the watch’s components are subjected for a short time to forces equivalent to 10 kilogrammes. The Pilot’s Watches from IWC have even withstood for- ces of 30 g for periods of several minutes in a cen- trifugal accelerator. In a pendulum impact tester, the watch is accelerated to 5,000 g in split seconds, which simulates the effect of a free fall onto a hard wooden floor from a height of 1 metre. One of the most demanding tests of them all is the “chapuis extrême”: here, the watch is shaken around inside a small container for hours on end, subject to knocks and impacts from all sides – 140,000 at a simulated 25 g, 94,000 at 100 g and 960 at 500 g.
For test purposes, some parts are manufactured as early as the design phase in order to check the minimum requirements for those components subjected to unusually high wear and tear. Take the Aquatimer’s rotating bezel, for instance, which undergoes a fatigue test equivalent to four dives per day, guaranteeing a minimum service life of 10 years.
In the climate test, the entire spectrum of thermal conditions a watch owner can be exposed to are systematically tested. Geographically speaking, this embraces everything from Alaska to the Sahara and the Brazilian rainforest. Watches are placed in a test chamber where, over a period of days and sometimes weeks, they have to withstand temperature changes from –20 to +70 degrees Celsius and up to 95 percent relative humidity. The next item on the agenda after this ordeal is long-term monitoring of the rate. This test makes use of an automatic multilevel microphone to check the regularity of the beat.
A two-week test in a saline bath at 37 degrees Celsius ensures that only materials are selected that will not corrode in daily use or even aggressive salt water. The rotating bezels in IWC diver’s watches also have to prove their reliability in dirty water. Glasses and dials are exposed to strong ultraviolet light for days on end and must not show any change of colour.
Test schedules carried out in the laboratory, of course, cannot successfully simulate every situation likely to be encountered in real life. This is the reason why all new models are given to individuals both inside and outside the company who wear them normally under everyday conditions. Effectively, and depending on the model in question, IWC watches are put through their paces when the wearer is chopping wood, diving, playing golf and mountain biking, or climbing at 3,000 metres.
In the course of components production, the various blanks are machined with the help of CNC milling machines. After surface machining, the acceptable tolerance for components, in general, is just +/– 0.02 millimetres, but in certain cases this may be as low as +/– 0.002 millimetres. After machining, the parts are finished by hand or proceed to an electric discharge machine. CNC wire electric discharge machines are used primarily for parts in the movement. The surface roughness can be controlled to a tolerance of 0.005 millimetres, but for precision EDM work, it is as low as 0.001 millimetres.
The assembly of a movement can be divided into four distinct stages: the winding mechanism, the going train, the escapement and the actual timing. Depending on the model in question, it will also involve the automatic winding and chronograph mechanisms as well as the calendar and hour counter. The most complex of these jobs is adjusting the escapement and aligning the balance spring so that it runs true and flat: this is a high-precision manual task that no machine could ever carry out to remotely the same high-quality standards. Functions and precision adjustments are checked and corrected continuously at every stage of the assembly process. After this, highly skilled watchmakers in the special features department add on complications such as the perpetual calendar, split-seconds mechanism and tourbillon to the basic movement. Those movements with a minute repeater are assembled here from the bottom up.
After the function controls, precision craftsmanship brings the surfaces up to IWC standard
In terms of the precision and effort involved, the manufacture of the case is in no way inferior to the other stages in production. For platinum cases, two blanks are cut from a 1-kilogramme block of the metal using an electric wire discharge machine. For watches made of precious metal, the case parts are bought in as cast components or, for stainless-steel and titanium cases, supplied in bar form and then machined on CNC lathes and milling machines. The maximum permissible circularity error of the parts must not exceed 0.03 millimetres. Milling machines are used to cut the lugs for the strap or bracelet and the apertures for the crown and push-buttons into the case middle and to create the complex open surfaces, such as those of the Da Vinci Chronograph. After the function controls, precision craftsmanship brings the surfaces up to IWC standard. The edges are deburred and rounded off, facets are cut into the necessary areas, all traces of turning, milling and processing are removed, and the surfaces are fine-ground and polished, satin-finished and blasted. Specialists now apply decorative surfaces such as circular graining to the case or components. The case, consisting of up to sixty individual parts, is then assembled. Finally, a series of complex tests such as water-resistance and outward appearance rounds off the case production process.
In these departments, all processes are carried out by hand. Depending on the model in question, specialists mount the dials on the fully timed and regulated movement by hand or using special tools. The same applies to the hands, which need to be set at exactly the right height and grip the pivot onto which they are firmly mounted. With chronographs, the zero position of the hands must also be absolutely exact. The movement is secured in position either to a casing ring or directly to the case. If the movement is gripped by a casing ring, the latter is held in position by a wave spring in the case back. The winding stems are individually adjusted. A special adhesive secures crowns that are screwed onto the winding stem.
Over a period of 10 days, the automatic movements in self-winding watches are rotated continuously, while those with manual winding are fully wound every other day. Running-in gives the wheels and pinions a chance to adapt to each other perfectly, while the lubricant penetrates into all the right places.
The quality assurance process is brought to a close with extensive final inspections. A watch’s fitness for everyday use is tested one last time by fully winding the movement, measuring its accuracy, checking the functions and appearance, and confirming its resistance to air and water in a series of special tests. The quality of any product that leaves the company on the Rhine is beyond all doubt. This seamless quality assurance process guarantees every future owner of an IWC watch that the company rigorously upholds its legendary quality standards.
Every watch from IWC is already a personality with characteristics of its own. Nevertheless, there are still customers who want more, and ask us to give their pocket or wristwatches a touch more individuality. Thanks to modern engraving techniques, the range of options offered by IWC in this area is virtually unlimited. Practically any request for specific changes to personalise a watch can be executed to perfection. “Engraving” comes from the French word “graver” and originally meant “to plough a furrow”. The carving of drawings, patterns, ornamentation or writing on wood, stone, ivory and metal creates attractive light and shade effects and is a means of immortalising very personal ideas. At IWC today, this age-old skill has been preserved in its original form as far as possible. In this way, miniature works of art, such as the engravings on the back cover of the Da Vinci Perpetual Calendar Edition Kurt Klaus or the Grande Complication, are created for posterity. An IWC watch may also be made unique by the addition of engraved initials, a date, a family crest, a company logo or a personal dedication.
The service department in Schaffhausen employs around fifty people who specialise exclusively in maintaining and repairing watches from all over the world and from every era since IWC’s foundation back in 1868. To ensure that no single detail is lost, IWC has maintained detailed records of every watch that has left the factory since 1885. IWC occasionally receives models going back as far as the first Jones calibre, and even experienced craftsmen are amazed by the achievements of watchmakers of an earlier age. Old pocket watches accurate to less than 3 seconds a day are no rarity.
At the heart of the repair department is the spare parts store. This accommodates millions of meticulously ordered individual components. Needless to say, original replacement parts for all the company’s recent models will also be available for years to come. As a rule of thumb, a quality mechanical watch needs a full service after about 4 to 5 years. The decisive factor is the stresses and strains to which the watch is exposed.
As a rule of thumb, a quality mechanical watch needs a full service after about 4 to 5 years
The serviced watch is subjected to a series of intensive final checks lasting five days
Whenever an IWC watch returns to Schaffhausen, it is treated with the greatest possible care. As part of every service, the watch is demagnetised and the movement completely dismantled. Worn parts, such as wheels, pinions, springs or bearings, are replaced. The movement is then cleaned, reassembled, lubricated and adjusted before being secured firmly in its case. All seals and, if necessary, the crown too are replaced. Finally, the serviced watch is subjected to a series of intensive final checks lasting five days. Only by going to these lengths can IWC guarantee that the watch will run accurately and remain waterresistant for years to come.
By observing a number of simple rules, any owner can help to give his IWC watch a longer effective service life. These include avoiding impacts, not operating any moving parts underwater (with the exception of diver’s watches) and only allowing a specialist to open the case.
Every watch that leaves IWC today is registered for eternity. Since 1885, full details of the calibre, materials used and the case number have been entered in the records. For more recent models, these details also include the reference number. For a small fee, heirs or subsequent buyers can obtain precise information about their IWC watch. So far, this registration was entered into the records, which contain all the details. From 1 July 2012, certificates will be provided for the first time.
For a certificate to be issued, the watch has to be sent to Schaffhausen, where it is carefully and thoroughly examined by one of our experienced watchmakers. It is not possible for a watch to be sent straight to Schaffhausen; it has to be delivered to an authorized retailer or to an IWC boutique.
The only way to establish a watch’s authenticity is to have it examined by one of our specialists in Schaffhausen. The information on the certificate mainly relates to the type, case and movement. The certificate may also include information about the watch’s features. If the comprehensive examination is to reveal that a part of the watch is not genuine, IWC reserves the right not to issue a certificate for the watch.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to provide information about the collector’s value of specific models, because this depends on factors such as supply and demand as well as the condition of the movement and case. In the event of a worst-case scenario involving loss or theft, it is advisable to report the incident in writing to the police and IWC. The case number in question is then entered in a special register, which ensures that if the watch does turn up again, it will not go unnoticed.
Heirs or subsequent buyers can obtain precise information about their watches and the authorised retailer who purchased them